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❶Parasuraman et al developed the SERVQUAL scale, consisting of 22 expectation and 22 perception questions, which were rated on a seven point likert scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. They recommended that the scale can serve as a template for other researchers to use in their investigation of recreational service quality.

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However, if the results are negative then the organisation knows that the plan they have implemented needs to be altered. Chellaudri et al were one of the first researchers to evaluate service quality in fitness centres as they developed The Scale of Attributes of Fitness Services SAFS.

Parassuraman et al criticised the SAFS scale by suggesting that it had a lack of structure, and it was confusing as to what in particular was being measured. Also, the wordings of the dimensions were not clear, which in turn questions the scales validity and reliability. If the wording is not clear to the customers then the investigator may think he is measuring one thing when in fact the customer has interpreted the question in another way. Parasuraman et al suggested the new and improved SERVQUAL scale was the way forward as it was the superior scale to use when measuring service quality across numerous industries.

Carman admitted that the SERVQUAL model has good stability; however the five dimensions stated are not always generic, as the dimensions will alter depending on the organisation being surveyed.

Even when the expectations are taken before a service has been delivered there is still no relationship between one another. Although the use of the performance minus expectations gap score is naturally appealing and theoretically sensible, the ability of these scores to provide extra information beyond that which is present in the perception component of service quality scale is under doubt Carmon, They also found that the distribution of SERVQUAL scores was not normal, and the scale also failed to achieve discriminant validity from its components.

They recommended that the scale can serve as a template for other researchers to use in their investigation of recreational service quality. They found that 28 of the 30 items scored negatively, therefore the perceptions did not meet the customer expectations.

Although they state the scale may be useful, it will still cause the fitness centre problems as customer expectations always seem to be higher than their perception. Consumers always want the best; therefore the managers of fitness centres will have difficulty in improving these scores and providing the perfect service for each customer. After consumers have experienced a service, their attitudes about the service quality may alter over a certain period of time and can change their future attitudes.

For example, just after a person has experienced a holiday they may think it was average or below average but as the person looks back over a period of time then they may feel that it was an enjoyable experience. So the perception of services can interestingly change over a period of time. This will allow greater feedback as more customers will be willing to answer the questions as there is a reduction in time taken to complete the questionnaires.

Another benefit is that the results gained from measuring customer perceptions only are more relevant and meaningful as it is discovered straight away what the customers thought of the service. However, several authors will argue the fact that measuring customers expectations are still important Parasuraman et al ; Gronroos ; Bopp The debate between the two scales has been continuous.

They stated that although Cronin and Taylor suggest that there is little empirical evidence to support the theory of perceptions minus expectations gap, many researchers have supported this theory Crompton and Mckay ; Gronroos, Cronin and Taylor responded to the arguments made by Parasuraman et al and suggest that they are not the only researchers to challenge the SERVQUAL model and many others have found faults in the model Grewal and Brown, ; Hartline and Ferrell, Cronin and Taylor strongly believe that their scale is valid, reliable and very useful in measuring service quality and consumer attitudes.

The fitness centres in Korea at this time were gradually increasing, as demand was increasing. Consequently, the managers of fitness centres wanted to know what customers in this new field required so they could implement it in their fitness centre and gain a competitive advantage over existing and new competitors.

A variety of different models and tools have been assessed in the literature review. Although other models have been proposed which directly measure service quality in fitness centres they have not received the same support that the SERVPERF scale has. Hypotheses 1 — There will be no significant difference in service quality between fitness centre A and fitness centre B. Hypotheses 2 — The empathy dimension will be the highest rated dimension.

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My ambition is to become a Head Teacher within the next few years. The instrument has been widely applied in a variety of contexts and cultural settings and found to be relatively robust. It has become the dominant measurement scale in the area of service quality. Both the expectations component and the perceptions component of the questionnaire consist a total of 22 items, comprising 4 items to capture tangibles, 5 items to capture reliability, 4 items for responsiveness, 4 items for assurance and 5 items to capture empathy.

The length of the questionnaire combined with sample size requirements contribute to substantial costs in administration and data analysis. The instrument which was developed over a five year period; was tested, pre-tested and refined before appearing in its final form.

In application, many researchers are forced to make minor modifications to the instrument as necessary for context-specific applications.

This conceptualisation is known as the model of service quality or more popularly as the gaps model. The model of service quality, popularly known as the gaps model was developed by a group of American authors, A. Parasuraman , Valarie A. Zeithaml and Len Berry , in a systematic research program carried out between and The model identifies the principal dimensions or components of service quality; proposes a scale for measuring service quality SERVQUAL and suggests possible causes of service quality problems.

These five dimensions are thought to represent the dimensions of service quality across a range of industries and settings. The model of service quality is built on the expectancy-confirmation paradigm which suggests that consumers perceive quality in terms of their perceptions of how well a given service delivery meets their expectations of that delivery.

When customer expectations are greater than their perceptions of received delivery, service quality is deemed low. When perceptions exceed expectations then service quality is high.

The model of service quality identifies five gaps that may cause customers to experience poor service quality.

In this model, gap 5 is the service quality gap and is the only gap that can be directly measured. In contrast, Gaps cannot be measured, but have diagnostic value. The development of the model of service quality involved a systematic research undertaking which began in , and after various refinements, resulted in the publication of the SERVQUAL instrument in This initial search identified some items which were used in the first rounds of consumer testing.

Preliminary data analysis, using a data reduction technique known as factor analysis also known as principal components analysis revealed that these items loaded onto ten dimensions or components of service quality. The initial ten dimensions that were believed to represent service quality were:. Further testing suggested that some of the ten preliminary dimensions of service quality were closely related or autocorrelated.

Thus the ten initial dimensions were reduced and the labels amended to accurately reflect the revised dimensions. By the early s, the authors had refined the model to five factors which in testing, appear to be relatively stable and robust.

The acronym RATER, is often used to help students of marketing remember the five dimensions of quality explicitly mentioned in the research instrument.


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Design/methodology/approach – The paper critically examines various service quality models on the basis of review of literature. The main objective of this critical review is to identify the linkage between them and highlight the area for further research in order to develop one standardised measurement model of service quality.

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Design/methodology/approach – The paper critically examines 19 different service quality models reported in the literature. The critical review of the different service quality models is intended to derive linkage between them, and highlight the area for further research.

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the quality of services delivered. This study focused on the service quality models. The methodology of this study was to review the existing service quality models in chronologic order. In discussion part, the dimensions of the models were examined and three main groups that consist of service quality dimensions were obtained. Service quality literature is based on product quality literature (Brady & Cronin, a) but scientists introduced and developed lots of other models for service quality that are specifically for service industry.

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Service quality literature is predominantly concerned with the customer's perspective; there is a scarcity in the amount of research concerning the staff's perspective: '…there is something of a paucity of published research on the support staff's perspective' (Reynoso, and Moores , p). LITERATURE REVIEW Researchers believe that the service quality theory is based on the literature of customer satisfaction and product quality (Brady & Cronin, ). There are many service quality models but scientists are not of one mind about these models and measurements.