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Research paper writing is a challenging task, but the tools we listed above can make it way more interesting. Explore your options and start working on the assignment today!

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Thanks for sharing this post with us. This article is written by: You also receive daily article recommendations that are based on the content of your library. Designed to assist you in collecting, organizing, citing, and sharing research sources, this program is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. The versatile research tool senses content in your web browser, which you can add to your personal library with one click.

The program provides a searchable location to store everything you require for your research project, including images, website snapshots, PDF files, and audio and video files. Writing an academic paper is time consuming and takes a lot of effort, we know. Use these handy research tools to make the research and writing process run more smoothly.

Hopefully, the tools listed above will help you save time and produce a better, more complete paper. The article may contain now or in the future links to other websites that may provide services or products to you. These links and this information is being provided to you for your convenience and as a resource. We are not responsible for the privacy practices, the content of, or any other actions of such other websites or their owners or operators, information they may collect or information they may share.

The reader may only be interested in one formula or part of a procedure. Materials and methods may be reported under separate subheadings within this section or can be incorporated together. General intent This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. Writing a materials and methods section Materials: Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way.

Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc.

If use of a specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, or a culture from a particular supplier is critical to the success of the experiment, then it and the source should be singled out, otherwise no.

Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. In biosciences we frequently work with solutions - refer to them by name and describe completely, including concentrations of all reagents, and pH of aqueous solutions, solvent if non-aqueous. See the examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc.

To be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures Generalize - report how procedures were done, not how they were specifically performed on a particular day. For example, the Bradford assay is well known.

You need not report the procedure in full - just that you used a Bradford assay to estimate protein concentration, and identify what you used as a standard.

Therefore when writing up the methods most authors use third person passive voice. Use normal prose in this and in every other section of the paper — avoid informal lists, and use complete sentences. What to avoid Materials and methods are not a set of instructions. Omit all explanatory information and background - save it for the discussion. Omit information that is irrelevant to a third party, such as what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data.

Results The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. Continue to be concise, using figures and tables, if appropriate, to present results most effectively. See recommendations for content, below.

General intent The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Content Summarize your findings in text and illustrate them, if appropriate, with figures and tables. In text, describe each of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant. Provide a context, such as by describing the question that was addressed by making a particular observation.

Describe results of control experiments and include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table, if appropriate. Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed converted data in the form of a figure graph , table, or in text form. What to avoid Do not discuss or interpret your results, report background information, or attempt to explain anything.

Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. Do not present the same data more than once. Text should complement any figures or tables, not repeat the same information.

Please do not confuse figures with tables - there is a difference. Style As always, use past tense when you refer to your results, and put everything in a logical order. In text, refer to each figure as "figure 1," "figure 2," etc. If you prefer, you may place your figures and tables appropriately within the text of your results section. Figures and tables Either place figures and tables within the text of the result, or include them in the back of the report following Literature Cited - do one or the other If you place figures and tables at the end of the report, make sure they are clearly distinguished from any attached appendix materials, such as raw data Regardless of placement, each figure must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption caption goes under the figure Regardless of placement, each table must be titled, numbered consecutively and complete with heading title with description goes above the table Each figure and table must be sufficiently complete that it could stand on its own, separate from text Discussion Journal guidelines vary.

Space is so valuable in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, that authors are asked to restrict discussions to four pages or less, double spaced, typed. That works out to one printed page. While you are learning to write effectively, the limit will be extended to five typed pages. If you practice economy of words, that should be plenty of space within which to say all that you need to say.

General intent The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. Writing a discussion Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth.

Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. Do not simply dismiss a study or part of a study as "inconclusive.

Draw what conclusions you can based upon the results that you have, and treat the study as a finished work You may suggest future directions, such as how the experiment might be modified to accomplish another objective. Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms. Decide if the experimental design adequately addressed the hypothesis, and whether or not it was properly controlled.

Try to offer alternative explanations if reasonable alternatives exist. One experiment will not answer an overall question, so keeping the big picture in mind, where do you go next? The best studies open up new avenues of research.

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Research paper writing is a challenging task, but the tools we listed above can make it way more interesting. Explore your options and start working on the assignment today! This article is written by.

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REF-N-WRITE has an academic phrase bank containing 20, frequently used academic/scientific phrases and templates. Non-native English speakers and international students will find this resource very useful to improve their academic writing skills. What are useful tools for writing academic papers? Update Cancel. Answer Wiki. Self-Writing Tools. Grammarly | Instant Grammar Check - Plagiarism Checker - Online Proofreader Research paper writing services, that can assist you with their writing help. What are some free tools for research paper writing? Can the dash be used in academic.

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Whether you are writing an article, research paper, essay, blog, and dissertation or PhD thesis, it is important to choose an appropriate writing software tool for your work. The choice of writing software comes down to your personal taste. 6 Useful software tools for academic writers. October 23, By Kim Pawlak Leave a Comment. Research Writer by ActiveScholar. This research writing software (the company offers a free day trial) is developed specifically for academic writers. theses, course papers, essays and books. 5.